Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea and its effect on instrumental activities of daily living among females from Pakistan
More details
Hide details
University Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus, Pakistan
Submission date: 2020-09-01
Acceptance date: 2020-12-23
Publication date: 2021-12-06
Physiother Quart. 2021;29(4):65-69
Painful periods is one of the utmost general gynaecological disorders of adolescence. Therefore, the main aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea and its effect on instrumental activities of daily living among females from Pakistan.

An observational cross-sectional study with a sample of 161 females was organized at University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus, Pakistan, between October 2019 and March 2020. The participants’ age ranged between 18 and 36 years. Their body mass index was calculated through weight and height. The data were collected by using WaLIDD score (working ability, location, intensity, days of pain, dysmenorrhoea), visual analogue scale, and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between different variables. The data were analysed with the SPSS statistical software, version 20.0.

Out of the 161 participants, 60.87% had moderate dysmenorrhoea, while mild and severe dysmenorrhoea was reported in 7.45% and 31.68%, respectively. Most females (62.11%) exhibited instrumental activities of daily living disability, while 37.89% had no disability. The results revealed that there were statistically significant associations between dysmenorrhoea and instrumental activities of daily living (p = 0.003). Significance was assumed at p < 0.05.

Dysmenorrhoea had a statistically significant effect on instrumental activities of daily living (p = 0.003).

Pejčić A, Janković S. Risk factors for dysmenorrhea among young adult female university students. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2016;52(1):98–103; doi: 10.4415/ANN_16_01_16.
Orhan C, Çelenay ŞT, Demirtürk F, Özgül S, Üzelpasacı E, Akbayrak T. Effects of menstrual pain on the academic performance and participation in sports and social activities in Turkish university students with primary dysmenorrhea: a case control study. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2018;44(11):2101–2109; doi: 10.1111/jog.13768.
Giletew A, Bekele W. Prevalence and associated factors of primary dysmenorrhea among Debre Tabor University students, North Central Ethiopia. Int J Biomed Eng Clin Sci. 2018;4(4):70–74; doi: 10.11648/j.ijbecs.20180404.11.
Seven M, Güvenç G, Akyüz A, Eski F. Evaluating dysmenorrhea in a sample of Turkish nursing students. Pain Manag Nurs. 2014;15(3):664–671; doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2013.07.006.
Aziato L, Dedey F, Clegg-Lamptey JNA. The experience of dysmenorrhoea among Ghanaian senior high and university students: pain characteristics and effects. Reprod Health. 2014;11:58; doi: 10.1186/1742-4755-11-58.
Kaur S, Sheoran P, Sarin J. Assessment and comparison of dysmenorrhea in terms of severity of pain and utilization of non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs among unmarried and married women. In J Caring Sci. 2015;8(3):737–746.
Akinnubi CF. Influence of dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia on academic performance among female students in tertiary institutions in Ondo State Nigeria. World J Soc Sci. 2016;3(2):34–41; doi: 10.5430/wjss.v3n2p34.
Okoro RN, Malgwi H, Okoro GO. Evaluation of factors that increase the severity of dysmenorrhoea among university female students in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria. Internet J Allied Health Sci Pract. 2013;11(4):7; doi: 10.46743/1540-580X/2013.1458.
Rajalaxmi V, Paul J, Vijayapriya V, Gracy RH, Kamatchi K. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school & college girls and postpartum women. Drug Invent Today. 2018;10(5):769–772.
Potur DC, Bilgin NC, Komurcu N. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea in university students in Turkey: effect on daily activities and evaluation of different pain management methods. Pain Manag Nurs. 2014;15(4):768–777; doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2013.07.012.
Yesuf TA, Eshete NA, Sisay EA. Dysmenorrhea among university health science students, Northern Ethiopia: impact and associated factors. Int J Reprod Med. 2018;2018:9730328; doi: 10.1155/2018/9730328.
Aktaş D. Prevalence and factors affecting dysmenorrhea in female university students: effect on general comfort level. Pain Manag Nurs. 2015;16(4):534–543; doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2014.10.004.
Kural M, Noor NN, Pandit D, Joshi T, Patil A. Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhea in college going girls. J Family Med Prim Care. 2015;4(3):426–431; doi: 10.4103/2249-4863.161345.
Helwa HAA, Mitaeb AA, Al-Hamshri S, Sweileh WM. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and predictors of its pain intensity among Palestinian female university students. BMC Womens Health. 2018;18(1):18; doi: 10.1186/s12905-018-0516-1.
De Sanctis V, Soliman A, Bernasconi S, Bianchin L, Bo­na G, Bozzola M, et al. Definition and self-reported pain intensity in adolescents with dysmenorrhea: a debate report. Riv Ital Med Adolesc. 2016;14(2):5–11.
Pitangui ACR, de A Gomes MR, Souza Lima A, Schwingel PA, dos S Albuquerque AP, de Araújo RC. Menstruation disturbances: prevalence, characteristics, and effects on the activities of daily living among adolescent girls from Brazil. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2013;26(3):148–152; doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2012.12.001.
Yasir S, Kant B, Dar MF. Frequency of dysmenorrhoea, its impact and management strategies adopted by medical students. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2014;26(3):349–352.
Rawat N, Thakur A, Sharma S, Prashad J, Kaur S, Ghai S, et al. Prevalence of dysmenorrhoea, and its impact on activities of daily living (ADLS) among nursing personnel. Baba Farid Univ Nurs J. 2016;10(1):30–38.
Hailemeskel S, Demissie A, Assefa N. Primary dysmenorrhea magnitude, associated risk factors, and its effect on academic performance: evidence from female university students in Ethiopia. Int J Womens Health. 2016;8:489–496; doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S112768.
Kizilirmak A, Kartal B, Calpbinici P. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea in young women and their coping methods. Med Sci Int Med J. 2019;8(2):291–295; doi: 10.5455/medscience.2018.07.8937.
Stineman MG, Xie D, Pan Q, Kurichi JE, Saliba D, Schüs­sler-Fiorenza Rose SM, et al. Understanding non-performance reports for instrumental activity of daily living items in population analyses: a cross sectional study. BMC Geriatr. 2016;16(1):64; doi: 10.1186/s12877-016-0235-0.
Hopkins RO, Suchyta MR, Kamdar BB, Darowski E, Jackson JC, Needham DM. Instrumental activities of daily living after critical illness: a systematic review. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017;14(8):1332–1343; doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201701-059SR.
Al-Asadi JN, Abdul-Qadir RA. Dysmenorrhea and its impact on daily activities among secondary school students in Basra, Iraq. J Fac Med Baghdad. 2013;55(4):339–344; doi: 10.32007/jfacmedbagdad.554576.
Jenabi E, Fereidooni B, Karami M, Masoumi SZ, Safari M, Khazaei S. The effect of bee prepolis on primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized clinical trial. Obstet Gynecol Sci. 2019;62(5):352–356; doi: 10.5468/ogs.2019.62.5.352.
Azagew AW, Kassie DG, Walle TA. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea, its intensity, impact and associated factors among female students’ at Gondar town preparatory school, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Womens Health. 2020;20(1):5; doi: 10.1186/s12905-019-0873-4.
Ibrahim NK, AlGhamdi MS, Al-Shaibani AN, AlAmri FA, Alharbi HA, Al-Jadani AK, et al. Dysmenorrhea among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University: prevalence, predictors and outcome. Pak J Med Sci. 2015;31(6):1312–1317; doi: 10.12669/pjms.316.8752.
Mohammed H, Hassen N, Musa A. Dysmenorrhea and associated factors among secondary school students in East Hararghe zone, Eastern Ethiopia. East Afr J Health Biomed Sci. 2019;3(1):39–48.
Omorogiuwa A, Ekhegbesela OA. Dysmenorrhea: relationship to body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. Nigerian Soc Exp Biol J. 2014;14(1):43–45.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top